beer: once the mainstream beverage
Germany, princess Elizabeth & middot; the duchess of Orleans. Charlotte (1652 ~ 1722) was a letter written to his hometown of complains of Versailles drinks too hard to drink: & other; Tea tasting like made hay of water, coffee, like just out of the pile of fake beans do drink, chocolate is too sweet. One of my favorite soup, or a German beer often drink my stomach is not painful. Throughout the &;
beer in beer heating pan, and then an egg in the other containers in, put a little butter, pour a little cool beer mixing, finally pour hot good beer into the container, add some salt and sugar, soup is ready a beer. Beer was replaced by the coffee in the 19th century, was the most common breakfast drink German beer soup, from the farmer to noble, all like add a little alcohol in breakfast.
the beer is used the most mainstream western drinks. This drink is not as a food supplement, it is food in itself. In eastern Europe and northern Europe, before the potato was introduced, the locals to beer as part of the staple food, its weight in food may even more than bread. Regardless of the men and women, rich and poor, the healthy patients, almost everyone likes beer. According to Britain’s Cambridge university press, the British agriculture food, energy, and entertainment in the book, in the second half of the 16th century, a male mill worker on an average day to drink 4 quarts (4.5 liters) of beer, the quantity of female is half male workers. In the early 17th century, beer drinking, but the per capita consumption is still reaches more than 2 liters a day. In the second half of the 17th century, beer still occupies an important position in daily food & ndash; & ndash; Beer lane like meat and bakery, belongs to the housewife everyday. But now it has faced strong competitors, in the ordinary people there is liquor, the nobility and the citizen class there is coffee.
liquor: the industrial revolution spirit and disruptive
as early as in medieval times, had known liquor. In the 16th century, this wine is used mainly as a medical disinfectant, the average person there is no need for such a high alcohol drinks. At that time still ruled by beer beverage market, after 200, however, had a change: liquor has become an integral part of a daily beverage. The 18th century, the leading position of the beer has been greatly weakened, about 50 years later, the spirits of the annual output has reached about 1.1 million gallons, at that time, Britain’s population is about 6 million, which means no matter the men and women, old and young, to drink 8 litres per person each year liquor. The popular and the British colonial overseas expansion may be related, liquor alcohol content is 10 times as much beer, can prevent malaria in tropical regions, also can be used for simple disinfection on the battlefield. More important, people at that time in the daily food have get rid of the dependence on beer, and liquor alcohol concentration is high, easy to carry, no matter where, as long as a bottle of can fly.
than beer, liquor brewing a bit more complicated, after fermentation pass it one or twice distillation. And because liquor with fruit as raw material, so the cost is higher than beer. Low cost is always the cause of the beer beverage can occupy the boss, but after the rise of the industrial revolution, the use of the steam engine to reduce the cost of many links, relative to beer cost advantage of little loss of brandy. Pubs are more willing to sell liquor, because nearby have breweries, and convenient storage. When the factory in the city and the country is becoming more and more people’s free time also on the decrease, the pursuit of pleasure to speed up part of the abandoned beer, lifted the small amber glass.
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(British artist William & middot; Huo, in 1751 created a “gin lane” and “beer street”. This is two picture should be his friend as sheriff & ndash; & ndash; Henry & middot; Federline please creation, as the British parliament issued shortly after limit liquor bill.)
although the spirits of the invention is in the middle ages, it has unique characteristics: the industrial revolution of the smallest, the fastest speed and the greatest satisfaction. If only need water, hops and malt beer is a kind of agricultural, pastoral simple drinks, then distillation, a high concentration of liquor as the industrial revolution at an extremely rapid way to get people out of the field. Then liquor has spun off beer food function, it in the beverage industry brings shocks like loom in textile industry, have shaken the traditional way of life and consumption. However, the price and the acceleration of excitement is not without cost, high alcohol concentration is brought acceleration of pleasant sensation, also lead to a lot of drunk. Such a petition: the British parliament has ever received & other; Now the liquor has been very popular in Britain, the tavern everywhere can buy this kind of beverages, and before we are drinking beer! After a day busy work, need to have a healthy body, strong drinks, this is not only good to the body, but also is beneficial to society. The beer can promote labor, and it was cheap. The liquor on the contrary, the longer it will harm people’s health, many people have died of this wine! Throughout the &; The last sentence clearly exaggerated, but it can be seen that at that time the society for the types of wine already has a moral judgment: beer is healthy, pastoral, production, liquor is harmful, decadent, consumption.
if beer with splintered winery and cheap price to eliminate the gap between rich and poor, so after the industrial revolution spirits in another dimension to realize the equality, but that on the basis of equality based on illusion. In a growing gap between rich and poor and front of the factory management is more and more severe, many workers in the anesthetic effect of alcohol for psychological equality. A penny in the 18th century England, can buy a cup of liquor, can get blind drunk two pence, and the tavern was generally in the corner with a straw, drunk people there for the night, it is not a charge. Because drunken fight such things too much, the tavern is place for the police to watch. The popularity of liquor make it completely replaced the old beer in the bottom of the civilian status, become the most cheap and rough wine. Those who like to drink liquor rich return since pour the drink to private space, gradually formed an unwritten on such social boundaries: liquor=private, beer=group. Have the identity of the man in the pub to buy liquor is often considered unseemly behavior, previously in any civilization in the world, drinking is a kind of collective behavior. British artist William & middot; Huo, in 1751 the two painting, named “gin lane” and “beer street”. The former describes the degenerate street by spirits, spread the alcohol drunk and death, in the details of the picture it is thus clear that someone committed suicide, some people fight, a drunk mother let children fell from his hand. And in the corresponding “beer street”, is a thriving scene of peace, have rest in peace, someone I work with enthusiasm. In such a dichotomy, beer is a new social status, it may be a popular beverage was replaced by the spirits of the underlying market after new redemption & ndash; & ndash; It seems to get rid of the identity of the wine, like water, neutral and beneficial. Spirits that the blood of the industrial revolution, in the end appears rough and difficult to control. Every factory owners hope in all of the production process to achieve control, but in the fermentation, distillation, and storage has made significant progress, after liquor wake up as if ancient Bohemian spirits, a collapse in the end of the progress of the technology in their own kernel, this is the Puritan and capitalist spirit can’t stand.
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coffee: the puritans and middle-class new hobby
the Puritan for pleasure usually hold a suspicion and hostility attitude. Max & middot; Webber in the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism said: & other; Any unchecked enjoyment in life, whether it is noble sports activities or civilians in the revelry in the dance hall or hotel, will motivate people to abandon their duties and deviate from the religion, so should be a rational asceticism enemies. Throughout the &; Although compared with the industrial revolution liquor, beer has been very mild beverages, but the religious reform of the more than 200 years before the industrial revolution s, beer is still a Puritan target object. Food scene in many cartoons at the time the record, many citizens were defacing the drunk, long out of the monkey, animals such as pigs, the donkey head and other characteristics. & other; Drunk & throughout; By image into a specific of the devil, often appear near the glass.