“the four doors,” li wei progenitor, Zhou Xing supplement of, Beijing university publishing house in January 2011 the first edition, 25.00 yuan
bar first language
the best-known, folklores of those sound ridiculous countryside wild talk, actually is not far from us, contains the ideas and practices of them still exist in various forms in the present. & other; Throughout our &; As a community, & other; I & throughout; Become & other; I & throughout; With these cultural gene is closely related to the formation of identity. Here, we will feel and parsing a variety of folk culture; Here, we will find another & other; Culture throughout China &; .
this year, a full surname family out of the Beijing suburbs a catch in it somewhere. In the field of muskmelon yield per year is not a burden, but this year, each family will be ripe melon took off, to those who still immature little melon on the vines, but only every other day, the ground ripe melon can be packed in a burden. Cantaloupe can’t mature so fast, the neighbor reminds, the family talent remembered recently this period of time home there are always two weasel, chasing each other to play. Therefore, everyone finds magic fertility of melon of the two is called the god of fortune & other; Huang ye & throughout; Good spirit?
this is the beginning of 1940 s, a record of yanjing university student li wei progenitor villagers say one thing. Here & other; Huang ye & throughout; , is very popular in north China & other; Four door & throughout; Belief in the weasel.
now young people I’m afraid there are few know & other; Four door & throughout; , but until 60 years ago, it was the han nationality, especially in northern part of the People’s Daily life. The so-called & other; Four door & throughout; , is a folk (hu) to the fox, weasel (yellow), hedgehog (white), and the snake (willow door or door) the floorboard of the four animals (also in some places called & other; Five doors & throughout; Or & other Five fairy & throughout; , that is, outside of the four doors and combined with the grey door mice). & other; Four door & throughout; Faith is believed that these animals have special spiritual and the divine power, can affect the individual blessing, come the rise and fall as well as other worldly affairs, thus offering by these animals or communicate with them.
four door beliefs mainly includes the following content of the consequential.
the first and only some fox, weasel, hedgehog and snakes have the miraculous ability, they are the miraculous, because after practice. The deeper the practice, the stronger the divine power. The main way of practice is the essence of the essence of heaven and earth and people. People think that, in the night to see a low in the firelight, practice is the fox spit Dan.
second, four gates of the miraculous ability mainly embodied in them can affect human affairs. They can work make people ill, for example, can point & other; Furnace medicine & throughout; (incense ashes) makes people growing ease; They can will club food things moved to hezekiah, even can change a home aches of the heart; They can also solve the problems of daily life, such as mediating family conflicts, indicating life difficult.
third, four doors appeared on earth, or activity is the animal in this shape, but also are different from ordinary animal image), or to change into a human, such as the fox, hedgehog often into the image of the old man, weasel, often into the kid. But the most common is that they through & other; Appendage & throughout; To people and exert its divine power. Those who are possessed of the people, so often to be seen as a four door animal agent, called & other; Sweet head & throughout; , & other Teachers & throughout; , usually with a & other; Big fairy & throughout; In the name of the impact of human affairs.
four door belief content contains some basic motif of folk beliefs. Such as the concept of practice, something (including animals, plants or even an inanimate object, such as stone) by absorbing the essence of heaven and earth and have the miraculous ability, the white niang son, ginseng extract, one thousand, sun story popped up in the stone, is this kind of case. In addition, & other; Possessed & throughout; Is a very old idea, because this kind of idea, had emerged as a communication holy and the profane world mediator role in the world, from the ancient wizard wizard to folk also exists now & other Throughout these days equavalent &; , & other Witch & throughout; , Ji child, as well as four doors & other in faith; Sweet head & throughout; , belong to this class. In a long historical period, this kind of approximate professional & other; God media & throughout; Or & other; Psychic & throughout; In people life holds an important social role.
four door of people about paranormal world idea embodied by faith, and with practice, quite different from the official religion of the intriguing, in a way that it is the characteristics of folk beliefs.
relations with the people in four big animals generally only active in the local community, and in general, they are only in a certain limits is efficacious. Some & other people to beg incense; Places throughout mouth &; , the fairy altar & other; Three aunt & throughout; , & other Cui flower girl & throughout; , & other The old gods & throughout; , & other Big old & throughout; Etc., is known as a specific local four door animals; Where the & other; The god of wealth building & throughout; Worship of animals, it is specific to in and out of the one animal to capitalists. These animals in village area, become a part of the acquaintance society, familiar with local families and their transactions, which can solve the people of all kinds of specific matters. This universality community faith and belief (such as guan emperor belief, guanyin belief), the differences between the lee is recorded in the comfort of, villagers is such, & other; Wheresoever & lsquo; Close the emperor & rsquo; Only one, how can in the busy lives in the temple? Throughout the &; So many of the world, but only has a close emperor or guanyin how to regard them, how can you demand? So, still be inferior to the fox ye, Huang Xian comes around efficacy!
on the other hand, according to people & other; People throughout & god way; The principle of thought in the world are similar with the secular society. These animals such as fairies also have go first, will be drinking companions together mora enjoyment; In their world, there are levels of up and down (for example the miaofeng mountains on the four door is higher than the four door status in the village), occupation of the transaction (such as male patients by male & other; Fairy altar & throughout; Healing, female patients by female fairy altar cure). Interestingly, the level of this grade and secular society is interlinked, such as only active in a community of fox ye, ye, if met the report and a senior officer of the world, has lost, can’t come.
in this way, the spirit world is transformed into both with a mystery, and people familiar with the local part of the society, it is not only the wild animals, and the four doors animals and often goes to the farm properties were similar). Thus has formed the way people deal with alien world & ndash; & ndash; In interpersonal communication experience and rules relationship with god, ghost and the miraculous animals.
so on the one hand, people for more than four door animals with awe of & ndash; & ndash; The hunter if they are not dozen; Household if have nests under the haystack of the hedgehog, it also dare not disturb; Have a family to corner in the courtyard, environmentalists built small & other; The god of wealth building & throughout; For them to live. People, on the other hand, sacrifice and worship of four doors is not a one-way, but a two-way interactivity. The interaction among the fear and intimidation; Both respect and worship for the paranormal animal returns, also by strong or threat to suppress these animals can’t work on his own.
Zhou Xing teaching people to have recorded the hebei area about & other; Fart play fox & throughout; The claim. Local spread magic little fox said the most like to put the things sent to house. Every day, even when cooked dumpling, many farmers say, they uncover the lid, found that just went down to the pot dumplings were all gone. We concluded that this was a & other; Fart play fox & throughout; Did it. Usually at this time, the master threw a pot, swearing. To open the lid, such as dumplings have again. Because & other; Fart play fox & throughout; Afraid of scold, and to send back the dumplings.
it can reflect the claim between people and four big animals in the interactions of daily life with kindness. We in the folk of ghost, article, such as land and the miraculous object of faith can identify the characteristics in practice.
it is hard to & other; Four door & throughout; What kind of formal religious beliefs to Confucianism, Buddhism. This class is called folk religious ideas and practice is very grassroots and rural, it is not god spectrum system, there is no specific religious rituals and clergy, no system of the literature record & ndash; & ndash; In other words, this belief is not in the social life into a specific field of sacred space and time, but the fusion in daily life, which reflects the anthropologist said 杨庆堃 & other Diffuse throughout the &; The characteristics of the.
if the world can be divided into the secular world and the divine world two kinds of form, so our world at present, is indeed to sanctification (or to incarnate) era. But I often think that everything can mutual transportation time, not just look up three feet have gods, even small animals around, is also looking at us.
the han nationality’s folk religion, [date] male, watanabe hin Zhou Xing translation, tianjin people’s publishing house, 1998)