& have spent grandmother hypothesis of the family map
affection between the two generations is worth praising not only, also be an anthropologist, behavioral biologist and evolutionary psychologist research topic.
& other; Night breeze caresses penghu bay, white sand, there is no coconut trees compose the setting sun, just a piece of light light blue sea & throughout; “Grandma’s penghu bay” this song is a story of Taiwan singer pananpang and grandmother deep between the two generations. Pananpang said that he used to make a long distance call from Taipei to penghu, give this song to my grandmother. After the singing, he heard my grandmother in sobs. Perhaps it is the theme of this song & ndash; & ndash; Story caused a chord between the two generations, making pananpang in fame on both sides of the Taiwan straits. In fact, the affection between the two generations is not only the theme of artists, also become the anthropologists and biologists and psychologists research topic.
grandmother hypothesis of new evidence
evolutionary psychologist at the university of Oxford in England & robin middot; , bo has just published a book about intimate relationships, in his book as across biology, anthropology, psychology, and other Grandmother hypothesis & throughout; Provides new evidence.
according to behavioural biologist at the university of Utah Christine & middot; Hawkes grandmother hypothesis is put forward in 1998, women’s life, with both love and offspring’s obvious changes in the process: before menopause, women put more effort into in love; And after menopause, put more energy in the process of birth grandchildren to take care of children.
in the case of most mammals, the existence of menopause is not a common phenomenon, and as human of higher animals, women after menopause, as a grandmother to help the growth of their grandchildren, this phenomenon for human survival and reproduction has a significant role in promoting. , professor of the latest research results published in the journal science reports at the same time, the grandmother hypothesis has once again become a hot topic.
in the bottom of the study, with a European phone operators offer 2 billion calls and 500000 text messages anonymous record as sample, we can confirm that the user is recorded in the age and gender, according to the frequency of contact calls and text messages to judge the degree of intimacy between straight or gay, according to differentiate these phone users & other; Best friends & throughout; And & other Good friends & throughout; .
after the division of the different age groups, the researchers calculated & all age groups all over the other; Best friends & throughout; And & other Good friends & throughout; The gender of the distribution. If a friend is a man, just add 1 minute, if it is a female, is minus 1 minute, then each age/gender group total score divided by the number of users. If the average is 1 that each female friends are men; If the value is 1, said male friends are all women. If is 0, it shows that there is no gender difference in choosing friends.
20 to 30 years old, similar to the psychological and behavior that men and women friends, tend to choose a heterosexual as & other; Best friends & throughout; . Among them, the women from the opposite sex selection & other Best friends & throughout; The average index peaked in the late 20 s, the average is 0.46, the tendency to 40. Men in later (that is, more than 30 years of age), & other; Best friends & throughout; The average peak – 0.41 for the opposite sex. In both sexes, & other; Best friends & throughout; Age are similar to their age range, it shows they with & other; Best friends & throughout; Men and women could be husband and wife or a friend. And gender & other Good friends & throughout; Basically is gay, is likely to be classmates, colleagues, or other partners, etc.
after entering the middle age, when choosing friends between gender preference, great changes have taken place. For men, & other; Best friends & throughout; Heterosexual average began to decline, until around age 50, thereafter remain in a stable level, from 50 to 80 years of age, men’s & other; Best friends & throughout; Remain within the scope of the opposite sex. At the same time, the men’s & other; Good friends & throughout; Gender differences in gradually disappear after 40 years old, studies suggest that the men’s & other; Good friends & throughout; Will no longer be the colleagues, students, etc., but their children (because the child is male or female possibility is the same).
and in contrast to men, women in more than 40 years old (that is, menopause), & other; Best friends & throughout; Members of the opposite sex index fell sharply. Around the age of 55, index become negative, indicates that the women tend to choose 20 ~ 30 gay (this is similar to their daughters age) as & other; Best friends & throughout; . During this time, women’s & other; Good friends & throughout; Turning to peers of men.
an unprecedented bo the study samples, breakthrough the limitations of the previous sample is too small for her grandmother hypothesis, which are considered very valuable. To inference the results of this study showed that older women in her daughter’s birth, invest more energy than in the aspect of the relationship.
grandmother hypothesis and postmenopausal
at the bottom of the study, published shortly after, Arizona state university professor of anthropology at gold & middot; Hill and he had a meeting, they in this study are discussed. Hill thinks, bo’s findings are consistent and certain aspects of the grandmother hypothesis, namely women after menopause, the attention to her daughter’s fertility problems. But in an interview with newsweek China, hill also expressed different opinions on this research: there are many other studies suggest that grandmother more willing to help son instead of daughter’s birth, marriage, depending on the particular social living habits. Hill put forward at the same time, if the older women to give their daughter on the phone more frequently, it may also be a sign that they are live together and son, don’t need to often to his son on the phone. As a result, bo team of research method has some deficiencies.
for grandma and grandson (female) closer the relationship between the phenomenon, the United States at the university of Texas professor David & middot; Buss used & other; Paternity uncertainty hypothesis & throughout; To explain. He put forward in the journal of evolutionary psychology, in the animal kingdom, for future generations and their genetic relations, females are usually able to 100% & other; Make sure & throughout; . When female production, there is no doubt that their offspring will be 50% of genes containing it. Male is not, however, & other; Make sure & throughout; To this point. Due to internal fertilization, before the arrival of a male and female animals may have and other males to mate, may have been conceived, or any time in their counterpart, the female animals can and other male mating in secret. The uncertainty of parent-child relationships, means that the male in the investment of parental care in a relatively disadvantageous position.
the ruins to humans, the evolution in this & other; Uncertainty & throughout; Assumptions, compared with grandpa, grandma, grandpa isometric hue, grandma is even able to & other; Identify & throughout; Daughter of his own, and & other; Identify & throughout; Grandson was born by his own daughter. Therefore, the close relationship between grandma and grandson is most can get & other; Identify & throughout; , so more intimate than other relations between the two generations, it seems to be from an evolutionary psychological explains & other; Grandma love deeper & throughout; The reason why.
the grandmother hypothesis is put forward, and is used to explain the phenomenon of female menopause, a professor at the university of Utah Christine & middot; Hawkes thinks, as the growth of the age, the female will reach a point in time, this time by helping raise grandson or granddaughter, than direct children more conducive to the process of reproduction. However, this is used to explain the theory of menopause is not widely recognized.
another explain the causes of the menopause & other; Throughout early death hypothesis &; Argues that women in a certain age to enter menopause, because the age of the female body has not suitable for breeding new life, a more than 50 years old of the risk to pregnant women is far better than a big many pregnant women in their 20 s. Hill in a recent issue of the journal nature published an article that women as the growth of the age, fertility decreases, older women and young women in & other; For men to help & throughout; Will lose competitiveness, then had to give up, has become a kind of menopause in line with the evolutionary laws of physiological phenomena.
in fact, the grandmother hypothesis hawkes is hill’s teacher, she is in an interview with Chinese news weekly highlights the different points of view and hill: menopause phenomenon is not the result of evolution, but due to the human body to delay the aging process, survival in women age far more than its reproductive age.
like hawkes’s point of view, more popular view is: menopause is since ancient times is a phenomenon that, just because the ancients life is very short, people don’t live to menopause, may die from a variety of reasons, so that time is not common human menopausal problems. But in modern times, due to the improve health conditions, greatly increased life expectancy, so that more women can & other; Live & throughout; Menopause & ndash; & ndash; Even life 50 years after menopause.
the United States at the university of Texas professor David & middot; Buss believes that almost exists only in human, menopause females can birth 95% of the time in my life. Other organs are gradually aging, while female menopause is merely one of the symptoms of an aging, unclear postmenopausal phenomenon is the result of evolution.
compared with women, men’s fertility could theoretically be continued until old age, but women’s menopause physiological phenomena to a certain extent, indirectly & other; End & throughout; The husband’s fertility. The argument for the men & other Chagrin & throughout; Gender differences, offers possible explanations for the male midlife crisis, also can partly explain life men are more willing to choose the younger women do his wife.