this paper “Chinese society proceedings” 235 special planning & other; Throughout 7 billion questioned China’s population problem &; One of the article
historical demography is generally defined as using conventional or unconventional technology of existing historical population data analysis research subject. In the history of the primary purpose of this study is to obtain detailed demographic information, such as population size, gender, age structure, birth, death, migration, and demographic changes, including above demographics and events, the measurement and analysis. Since the French history demographers Louis Henry founded in the 1950 s historical demography, the subject got rapid development in the world. In the past 30 years, the study of Chinese historical demography and population history also made major progress. Is one of the highlights of reproductive mode in China’s history and detailed examination of reproductive behavior and in-depth analysis of its complexity.
China has a long history and large population, family, marriage, birth of the model in the history of Chinese become the world’s many scholars research topic, also is often discussed as a typical. But, talking about the causes of a problem is to family, marriage, birth in the history of the Chinese model simplification, extreme, idealized. For example, in the understanding of reproductive mode and behavior of the China in the past, there is some misunderstanding between the long-term.
These misconceptions or views can simply summarized as: one, in the history of China & other; Fertility level is very high & throughout; Or & other Unusually high & throughout; . Two of the cause of the high fertility is due to the Chinese always & other; As much as possible to have children & throughout; , & other; Not only Chinese people like to have children, they like to have a lot of children & throughout; . In the history of Chinese & other; Never is conscious birth or population control & throughout; . Three, the Chinese are pursuing & other To have more more birth & throughout; Or & other To do all the & throughout; To increase the number of sons, it is because of China’s traditional culture is very encouraging. Four, forming the culture of one of the main reason is that never in the history of Chinese scholars and officials & other; Discussion and promote fertility and population control & throughout; . These simple and extreme view was popular for a long time, and study of fertility and population in China had a significant impact.
In recent years, Chinese history demographic studies have shown that more than a few views have serious limitations or error.
First, for the historical population data collected in many areas of analysis proof, and demographic as natural fertility or north-western Europe in some countries population shift began to marital fertility rates than before, in the history of Chinese marital fertility rates are much lower. The lower marital fertility began after birth and past Chinese women married late, birth interval between each child time is longer, stop childbearing age early on. China’s past fertility especially married women’s fertility, is not very high or exception.
Second, some of the recent study found that women in the history of the accident of birth intervals, tire time variables of high and low, the stop time in the morning and evening often have children and live condition and gender. Generally speaking, when some women have a son and daughter (especially sons more than daughters), they tend to slow down or stop. And those who have had the same number of children but only son or daughter, compared to women lower their fertility. This suggests that the Chinese history is not simply the pursuit of & other; To have more more birth & throughout; Or & other As much as possible to have children & throughout; . Quite a few people to birth, children or family size is the reason to consider and consciously controlled.
Third, the research on the behavior of people also found that in the history of the Chinese is not blindly pursue to have more children. Quite a number of people is according to their family situation, especially the economic conditions to adjust reproductive behaviour or family size. For example, historical records, whoever commits infanticide phenomenon is common in song dynasty. In recording the habit, when su shi, Yang, such as c, li kang, Fan Zhiming many celebrities have ever recorded in some areas of their familiar & other Children meter production throughout the mouth &; Or & other Meter prolificacy child & throughout; The practice of popular. Many families & other; Don’t like children & throughout; , & other; Only have two male and one female & throughout; . In some places — very alone, & other; The prosperous common people’s home but two male and one female, the home of the middle and lower DaLv throughout a man just &; . The record shows that, at least in some areas, the traditional fertility culture is not blindly encourage & other; To have more more birth & throughout; . More importantly, although some people have heard & other; Many children f & throughout; Statement or had similar ideas, but face the reality of life, many ancestors probably would like us to adjust their reproductive behavior and family size.
Fourth, though China for the past many dynasties rulers of the increasing population as the important condition of national strength and prosperity, the economy, but in saw after the population pressure and the adverse impact of history there are also some scholars and officials to discuss the disadvantages of population growth or propaganda limit population growth, not as some scholars abroad assertions have never in the history of Chinese scholars and officials & other; Discussion and promote fertility and population control & throughout; . Intellectual history monograph in this regard, some of the Chinese population has to everything is done, brahman chi feng, dong qichang, present, and the king HongLiangJi, Wang Shiduo people view made detailed discussion.
Fifth, and influence of Chinese traditional fertility culture should be considered, should not be simplified. For example, many people often cite & other; Many children f & throughout; With & other; There are three unfilial, ways & throughout; Statement as encourage to have more education of Chinese traditional culture. Both have a long history. & other; Many children f & throughout; That usually are thought to come from the book of songs. & other; There are three unfilial, ways & throughout; From the “mencius”. Both will have an effect on people’s fertility behavior, but strictly speaking, they are to survive (or son) quantity requirement is quite different. The first statement emphasizes the & other; Throughout the &; Son, child or the more the better, so will have more. The second said law emphasizes to have & other; After & throughout; , or have a son and family ties. When death level is higher, the more fertility is one of the important conditions to achieve this goal. But when the low level of death or already have a son to live as an adult, continue to more family will become no longer important. Therefore, the second concept does not necessarily require women have many children. In confusing the two concepts and their influence, is not conducive to our objective understanding of the influence of Chinese traditional culture on bearing.
Objective understanding of the fertility of Chinese history, birth pattern, reproductive behavior and fertility culture, for us to accurately understand and evaluate the Chinese fertility decline in recent decades, the role of the government, led by the family planning, and in recent years in east Asia, including China appear low birth level has important significance. For China’s current population situation, especially the knowledge of reproductive condition, will be the country’s long-term social and economic development have extremely important impact.
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