In the 19th century missionary Fu Lan and promote new novel back to the earliest Chinese books

Fu Lan jas (John Fryer) was a missionary in China in the 19th century, translators and scholars. Hagrid BaiLi from London in 1861 normal college after graduation, he accepted the Anglican sent to China as President of the Hong Kong st. Paul academy, after two years of Beijing jingshi with wen guan English teaching. 1865 as Shanghai yinghua academy principals and Lin foreign firm’s Chinese newspaper editor word “novaya gazeta in Shanghai. From 1867 to 1896, Fu Lan applied as Shanghai jiangnan manufacturing bureau chief translation translation pavilion, cooperation with many Chinese professionals translation of more than one hundred kinds of western literature, the content is given priority to with science, engineering and military, branch into geography, history, politics, diplomacy, society, etc. This batch of translation books introduce advanced western science and thought for intellectuals in the late qing dynasty to absorb western knowledge and modernization of China had a great effect. Fu Lan, during the period of westernization movement, western science and technology knowledge and books translated into Chinese up to a foreigner.

in addition to books, spread of western translation Fu Lan, during China’s another important contribution is to advocate and promote the new novel. Failure of the sino-japanese war in 1895, the qing government signed the country the maguan treaty with Japan, the heated at one time. In a whirl of reform, Fu Lan encouraged, and strongly criticized what he called harm China’s society, hinder progress & other; Three disadvantages & throughout; & ndash; & ndash; Opium, language and foot-binding and contributive open new novel prize essay contests, widely criticized & other; Three disadvantages & throughout; , put forward for treatment of the novel. He May 25 in 1895 and “shenbao” universal gazette in June seventy-seven volumes and the academic journal published & other; Throughout the rev & stylish novel; Advertising, the academic journal published in English & other; Prize throughout Chinese novel &; Advertising.

in & other; Throughout the rev & stylish novel; The Fu Lan use & other; for the first time, Stylish novel & throughout; The term. He asked for & other novels through Nearly today & throughout; , & other things; Easy to have & throughout; Words to JianMing boring, not strange. The implication is a novel should be realistic, depicting ordinary social life, to dramatic narrative, rather than blindly long discussion. This stylish prize novel successfully contributed to a batch of new novel come out. Many works except to expose the social evil and condemnation, also actively reform method, in order to promote the rise of national rich and strong, to achieve a specific civilized society. At this point, they are actually advocated improved social ethos of novels. Because they are motivated by the late qing dynasty novel clue of change, to a great extent, can be seen as condemning novels in late qing dynasty the development of the first sound, and they produce a time before new novel campaign launched in 1902 the seven years, earlier than four condemned novels in late qing dynasty for eight years.

on September 18, 1895, stylish novel prize essay end, received 162 submissions from all over the country. Fu Lan carefully read all the articles, and invited Shen Yugui, wang tao, Cai Erkang celebrities involved in the selection work, etc.

Fu Lan launched in 1895, this time, stylish novel prize essay contest in some extent, affect the overall direction of the novels of the late qing dynasty, it can also be generated by a number of novel is regarded as the origin of modern novels and a prelude. This novel, essay contest and that the first thing you notice it’s & other; In the late qing fiction pioneering the first article & throughout; Huang Jinzhu Taiwan scholars, she in May, 1991 issue of studies of Chinese literature (Taiwan university) published an article called “battle of sino-japanese and fiction in the late qing dynasty, stylish novel prize the campaign was introduced in detail. Unfortunately the Fourier collects 162 manuscripts, in hundred years without an article published.

although Korea south, Huang Jinzhu and other scholars believe Fu Lan held at the end of the 19th century, the new novel, essay is the origin of modern Chinese fiction, but their view of the lack of strong support, is just an academic point of view. Therefore, it’s never seen the whereabouts of precious literature has become a unsolved in academia. 110 years on November 22, 2006, the university of California at Berkeley east Asian library of Chinese librarians in the library, when it was moved in a books with sundry storeroom, unexpectedly has no intention in two dusty carton found this batch of new novel Fu Lan ya 1895 essay of the original manuscript.

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why this batch of precious historical documents in this essay disappear again one hundred years later rediscovered? This should speak of from Fu Lan she left China. About Fourier why China in 1896 to leave in a hurry to go to the United States of California, Berkeley, academic circles have different view. Yale university spence famous Chinese history experts Fu Lan is disappointed at Chinese from China, think he is a failure in China’s efforts. Korea south of Harvard University professor think Fu Lan, leave for family and economic considerations. Fu Lan in March 1896, published in the proceedings of the universal stylish novel out of the case and two months after the list of winners accept hired at the university of California, left for 35 years of his life in China to the west coast of Berkeley teaching.

in the archives of Fu Lan ya, the proportion of letters is rather important to the book, and one of the most for Fourier letter. From his letter, we can see Fu Lan is a very love family and children education. As early as 1891, Fu Lan second American wife of Elisha & middot; Nelson has carried his four children to settle in Oakland, calif. He on January 6, 1895, writing a letter to the board of directors of the university of California, mentioned this matter:

I admit I [in China] giving up existing good position and interests, to request for the board to provide new position seems absurd. This only because my wife and children are influenced by education in the United States. I hope to enjoy family happiness and pleasant climate in California. If I fail to be elected, I will work on the current position for a long time. (on January 26, 1895 letter to the university of California application letter) of the board of directors (” Fu Lan jas archives)

we can determine from these letters Fu Lan jas left his life in 1896 for 35 years, the main reason for China to the United States is one of the factors of the family. In addition in the May 22, 1895, in a letter addressed to the university of California, Kellogg’s principal Fu Lan also revealed another reason he moved to the United States. At this point, the Fu Lan jas already in Shanghai jiangnan manufacturing bureau of translation house work for 28 years, he felt that translation of western books, spread of western work can come to an end, especially the end of the sino-japanese war made him feel transforming China needs to accelerate, translation press time is slow, can’t keep up with the needs of The Times. Chinese intellectuals should learn a foreign language, accept education in Europe and America have a hope to catch up with the neighbors. Fu Lan ya think china-us relations will increasingly close, accept position at the university of California, Oriental language literature teachers can let him in, professor of Chinese language and culture at the same time, to the best of all his might, to assist students in China and the us to continue to help China.

the Fu Lan jas saw agassi lectures taught the importance of the seats. Above in the letter, he mentioned four can prove that he can be competent agassi lectures teachers qualified people: they are the principle of teaching Chinese language at the university of Oxford, Dr, Britain’s Cambridge university Sinologist Sir Thomas, jingshi with pavilion as Dr Ding weiliang of total teaching and experts of Chinese literature, in the living in Shanghai at that time Dr. Joseph. These people are the famous Sinologist. Fu Lan to academia, he more than 30 years of China’s experience and knowledge can come in handy. In addition, in the university of California, he still can cultivate students from China, this is his day.

Fu Lan ya gone when he was China’s career was at its peak, recede the United States, is also a big business, in order to complete the acceptance of Chinese students studying in the United States, these people will be able to return home to change the situation, and apply the western education system instead of old Chinese style education. He was accepted in Berkeley Chinese students, set up the home of Chinese students, Oriental institute is established. He took the next step: his life from the missionary to the prophets of the fire of the spread of western science and technology in China, finally become an educator and Sinologist.

we understand Fu Lan left China for many reasons, look at the 150 new stories essay is how to get to the us. Fu Lan, released in March 1895, stylish novel winners list after two months, left Shanghai, went to America’s new office. At this point, he put the collection of private collection in China with the manuscript to Berkeley, this includes he collected more than two thousand copies in both English and Chinese books in China, more than one hundred of his translation, and personal files, manuscripts and so on. At this time, he has no time to get new novel good essay works published. His focus has turned to the United States. This batch of new novel will be packaged and shipped across the Pacific, Berkeley. In August 1896 Fu Lan began to teach at the university of California, his personal library have also been on campus for the use of he and his students. Fu Lan jas before his death, his personal library all donated to the university of California, Berkeley, became the east Asian library of the first batch of books, is also one of Chinese book collection of early came to the United States.

(the author Peter zhou as a librarian at the university of California, Berkeley east Asia; This is the Shanghai ancient books publishing house, the preface to the book of new stories in the late qing dynasty published from time to tome abridged.