this book Yan Chong years with great concentration for 30 years, the same program will be aired on CCTV lecture room. Since the Ming dynasty moved the capital Beijing, span 600 years history, with new & other; Big & throughout; Concept, open the denotation of the imperial palace, for the first time, the old Summer Palace, the summer resort, shenyang imperial palace, the Palace Museum, the museum, etc., into the palace because of, as, thorough analysis in one thousand of a feudal royal family, mechanism, social humanities, cultural origin, architecture, and architecture, cultural relics, folk, etc., is a vivid and readable, intriguing & other; The imperial palace encyclopedia & throughout; Type works.
[review of the previous period]
Baohe Palace except as a qing emperor shunzhi and kangxi emperor of the bedroom, as well as the royal hall, conference room, gardenin, yili hall outside, still has an important function, the place that position is held, which hold the state examination place.
in imperial times, where a promotion opportunity, more speed? The answer is & other; Three close & throughout; : near, close to the palace imperial power and the emperor, the more close to the emperor palace, imperial power, it promoted the farthest. Where is the emperor palace, imperial power, recently? During the Ming and qing dynasties, the answer is cabinet, south (kangxi set), the study on the study, zhan fu and the grand council (yongzheng set), etc. How can be selected, the emperor into these places? The answer is: enter the academician courtyard, commonly known as & other; Points throughout the academician &; .
jinbang title, marked the long road research come to an end, drew a satisfactory full stop. But after earning jinshi, and cannot be directly peaceful period, dignitaries. Instead, exceeded otherregions jinshi, can only get seven product as a magistrate, and master the six, six small officer qualification. From seven to swallow, a full fourteen steps, jinshi just on the first step. In both the local provincial and central government departments, the chance of promotion is not much, also very slow. & other; Points throughout the academician &; You can change the fate of these people.
how to approach the academician courtyard? The right direction by two exam: and the imperial examination hall.
, the imperial examination is the academician courtyard to society often pavilion, a graduate student class society entry test, has been to admit of jinshi, besides a nail three an exemption, the rest hold a test again, called & other; Throughout the test &; , the selection to society, to study the academician courtyard. As a result, Ming & middot; election tzu said: & other; Starts to society, have group of reservoir facies. Throughout the &; School three years later, a graduation exam, called & other Scattered throughout hall &; .
according to the statistics, enrollment, the imperial examination is at least one shunzhi eighteen years, to 10 people; At most time, it is in the eighteenth year of guangxu, 99, 26846 in the qing dynasty jinshi, total examination society 5742 people (DiYongJun system of the qing dynasty academician courtyard), average each year, about 46.7, less than a quarter yearold open pollination progenies.
pavilion, is the academician courtyard to society often pavilion to society’s graduation exam. To society after three years of poor learning life, graduation exam will be held. Test scores are divided into three classes: first, pavilion, awarded the academician officer; The second class, or leave a pavilion, or work; Third person, or to read for three years, or return the jinshi syndrome lack of allocation. Only fine and medium, is the academician.
in the Ming and qing dynasties era, as the first of four people taxi, its highest level is the academician. As a result, the examination – society – scattered pavilion – the academician, constitutes a quick access to a path to the emperor’s side, and almost is the only channel. Of course, even if be the academician officer, also need to strive for, speaks ren shi, shi read, after the feast officer, etc., so the possibility of to be noticed by the emperor.
the Ming and qing dynasties emperor how to accept education? Mainly through & other; After the feast & throughout; .
what is & other; After the feast & throughout; ? & other; Throughout the &; Refers to the classic, is mainly the Confucian & other Throughout the five classics &; , that is, “the book of changes”, “the book of history”, the “book of songs”, “rites”, “spring and autumn” and so on. & other; Lords & throughout; Intended for bamboo, extended seat, here is & other; Professors & throughout; The meaning of. Together, & other; After the feast & throughout; Officials for the emperor’s, class teaching of Confucian classics, or the way of governing the country, is the emperor’s learning system. During the Ming and qing dynasties, big the feast held in mandarin house.
the Ming and qing dynasties after the feast, the same ritual, slightly different, in qing dynasty, for example, the comprehensive narrative. Held by does not move, the academician courtyard elected officer, academician courtyard palm court and speak officer develop title, write notes, king James, please. After the feast on the day of the dawn, by college students, etc., the heart to the temple worship. Held the feast, the mandarin three table before the throne is put between the north and the south, the north is for the use of emperor royal, were speaking officer with the case, south SanAn relatively, products in the font. Case on each chapter (notes), town to gold feet (paper weight). Standing beside the book (books) officer two member.
speak officer in two tables placed good notes: on the left is & other; Book & throughout; , i.e., & other; Four & throughout; ; On the right is the & other; Throughout the &; , i.e., & other; Throughout the five classics &; . The two speak officer, a total of four manchu and han, in pairs, points about books, by the (no full officer). Exhibition book officer knees row (kneeling) chapter about imperial state, and then back to his place. Speak out officer of manchu, first in manchu & other; Four & throughout; And then by the han Chinese speak officer speaking in Chinese. After finished, the emperor made some discussion, explanation of call & other; Books righteousness & throughout; Listen, ministers kneeling. Tell officer by the manchu and han again in order to tell & other; Throughout the five classics &; The emperor elucidates some & other; The righteous & throughout; And class. The emperor given to participants, or in the corridor room gives the tea, then drive back to the palace. Speak officer and others then to the gate of the east gallery to have a meal, sometimes in the mandarin temple palace bunyan house seats. Give feast the booze nature is good, the rest of the food is allowed to pack out. This seems to be the emperor at the time of grace, today is the economy, not waste.
the feast day, regular. The Ming dynasty there were two young son of heaven: one is 9 years old orthodox emperor, emperor wanli, another is 10 years old. I focus on introduction of emperor wanli. After the feast was the Confucian classics, education content, reason and abstruse, little emperors have difficulty in understanding. Records of zhang juzheng more committed to wanli emperor.
according to the Ming & middot; biography of zhang juzheng, he acceded to the throne just, zhang juzheng considering the young emperor, is picked out the Soviet experience of governing revolution, weave, author, emperor as a caption selection in the history of reverse positive 81, 36, a total of 117 story, every story, with pictures, illustrated, lively, in plain language, to the emperor. These interesting historical stories, cover all aspects cultivate one’s morality rule, is advantageous for the young son of heaven.
but & other; Throughout the three Yang &; And zhang juzheng on orthodox emperor and emperor wanli both young right of education is not successful, even a failure.
the reason, in the teaching & ndash; & ndash; Reading process is: first read, two, three, four, tell the feast day, have read, speak, write, but the lack of lines, heavy know light line. In the education & ndash; & ndash; & other; Teacher speak (officer), parents (queen mother queen or too), social atmosphere (court) & throughout; Difficult to coordinated. In the system & ndash; & ndash; & other; With long & office throughout; Monarchy, the emperor life.
all in all, the emperor of Ming dynasty are commonly used all sorts of reason to cancel the feast day, says the body is bad, said it’s too cold or too hot for a while. Although the secretary often wrote to admonish, but the emperor often indifferent.
in four young emperor in qing dynasty, emperor guangxu, for example. Guangxu second March 16, guangxu emperor of six began to go to school in yu city palace. The teacher have wun tonghe, etc. Guangxu emperor sit north to south, lay in front of the desk, there is by replacing ink. Weng teacher wrote & other; All is well & throughout; , & other Fair & throughout; After eight dignified ou’s characters, holding the emperor hands on red ruling paper MiaoGong mold. Then, made of zhang juzheng the emperor as a caption text, tell a story. The first two years, mainly to read, listening to lectures, endorsement. Regulation: daily life book read 20 times, cooked books read 50 times.
guangxu emperor often read half don’t want to read it, the teacher to urge, not open his mouth. The emperor can’t beat and scold, also cannot corporal punishment, reprimand, little emperors wail aloud to weep aloud, acoustic shock palace. Guangxu stubborn, sometimes ten days and a half months not open his mouth. So we have to play the empress dowager cixi, prince alcohol with please. Another teacher saying the light to come up with & other; Meditation method & throughout; , it is fine & other; Do not move throughout the &; . Guangxu emperor angry, cursed, break the glass and eunuchs & other; Throughout the &; Word lined, kneel to intercede, didn’t listen, rushed out of the study, fled back to his palace. Strike the emperor, empress dowager cixi, admonition emperor, support the teacher.
but another master Li Hongzao flexible education: & other; 1, books (stagnation emperor) learning books, to play pen. Hon algal stand before holding overhand yue: & lsquo; The emperor heart is not quiet, little, please. & rsquo; MuZongGai let xie. Throughout the &;
guangxu courage small, be afraid of thunder and lightning, a thunder storm, scared straight cry, weng teacher picked up the emperor, in his arms. Sometimes guangxu emperor because of abdominal pain, did not eat breakfast to the study, half the class said hungry, wun tonghe let the eunuch brought snacks. Guangxu, eleven distracted in class, teacher class early, and a half months, so often. What’s the matter? Used to have a house of watches and clocks, afraid he distracted, went off. Guangxu emperor excuses afraid of error, for eight minutes. He often play with, to play the bad. Don’t concentrate in class, the old thinking GongXiu clock back. Afterwards in the clock, just settled down to. Guangxu emperor grateful gradually, at the age of nine New Year give & other F & throughout; Word, specially will & other; F & throughout; Words on master weng head pulled back and forth two times repeatedly, mean & other; Throughout the body f &; , & other Family & throughout; . Cixi life cut, the study for guangxu emperor wun tonghe teacher for 22 years.