Ningbo mark: modern inventions in mahjong for upper-class entertainment activities

the thin ningbo people began to think of using a new kind of entertainment, can not only entertainment, can also play together with the foreigners’ business & hellip; & hellip;

on November 28, the United States held the first north American mahjong mahjong association league, accompanied by going shuffling sound and obscure & other; Eat, touch, poles, listening, and throughout the &; Such as mahjong & other; Throughout the term &; Sound, from various sectors of the north American players in the square in the city.

in recent years, mahjong become a popular leisure entertainment sports in the United States. In October 2010, the Wall Street journal has reported: & other; Mahjong popularity as martinis in New York. Throughout the &;

the month lake in ningbo, across the ocean, a humble SanJin old door, hung & other; The museum of Chinese mahjong & throughout; The plaque. Mahjong with the deep roots of the port city of ningbo here quietly.

& other; The inventor of modern mahjong is ningbo Chen fish gate, Chinese mahjong museum is located in the fish gate Chen ancestral shrine. Throughout the &; Ningbo mahjong museum of marshal told visiting tourists.

from the dice to horse hung

as a forerunner of mahjong is derived from the ancient games, mahjong is broadcasting the dice, information card and the combination of the hanging card.

the dice in the tang dynasty is a kind of popular games, according to the literature, the dice is a cube, commonly used animal bones horn carving, such as in Cheng Dachang “in numerous recorded” record: & other; Tang after bone as intruders, cinnabar stick, few thought the color. Also has the meaning as qiao, take long for the scarlet letter, pedants, qiao, make its color bright, clear. Throughout the &; That the dice, the tang dynasty has put red bean in hollow bones, the dice points showed clearly.

the famous tang dynasty poet wen ting-yun was written poems: & other; Linglong dice red beans, acacia know nor to the marrow. Throughout the &; Dice hollow out red bean Mosaic technique in the tang dynasty is very common.

it is said, when the dice six sides only & other; MAO & throughout; Is red, the other five points to black. Roll game is very popular in the tang dynasty palace, li and Yang roll color war, bad luck, after a fight can only throw & other; Four & throughout; Some Fang Keying. When the dice rotate in the bowl, so tang excitement jumped up and shouted loudly & other; Four & throughout; Point, as a result, the dice stopped for & other; Four & throughout; Life, after the tang dynasty to see big, ba-jie will & other; Four & throughout; Some also changed to red.

the tang dynasty after molding, dice games, two six-sided dice combinations, including flowers, FuTu, muddy and Joan MingQiongDeng a variety of design and color, to the Ming and qing dynasties, appeared two dice roll play & other; Day, ground, axes, the bench & throughout; Such as folk term, has become a popular game.

from today, design and color is consistent with China, Japan’s dice but & other; Four & throughout; Word is black, still visible dice before tang dynasty change color, have dongdu Japan separated only by a strip of water.

in fact, the pattern of modern mahjong part from CARDS & other; The crane & throughout; .

The

gu yanwu day known record, “said & other; Between the last of the wanli, peace, scholar-bureaucrat careless, with phase from gambling, to the apocalypse, start the horse of play. Throughout the &; This shows that social peace, common people spare time to play horse entertainment, become a way of life.

at the same time, ningbo scholar had his li “hung said ma”, support this view. The horse hanging CARDS have the prototype of the mahjong, absorbing the essence of the dice game, and in the design and color & other; Swastika & throughout; , & other Suozi & throughout; And & other Pence & throughout; Three dozen full of beautiful things in eyes, all kinds of horse dicks & other Mods & throughout; Also published one after another, such as constant of tu leaves spectrum, Li Suiqiu “yun zhang jing, a famous scholar feng menglong ligatures” horse outseam cases “and” brand by the thirteenth article “, detailing the horse style.

after the qing dynasty social stability, and the horse from jiangsu and zhejiang area north extension, and popular in the country, because of gambling FengRi heavy, horse hanging caused some popular antipathy.

shandong literati Wang Shizhen “to share more than words” records: & other; I don’t understand his wu customs, there are three measures, horse tags, eating globefish fish, fear of five ahriman, although scholars who can’t avoid. Nearly hanging gradually and the north, and to mix jiang, trip on the lake, a variety of games, I in several children, more FeiXue race. Not for years and the borders. To the parents have their in the hall, and the first house already jing his surname, it will not regret. Throughout the &;

ningbo at the beginning of the qing dynasty scholar had his li “horse hung said, record & other The crane & throughout; In the case of a popular between Ming dynasty and early qing, and compared with the Ming shi-ying ma, RuanDaCheng rid, denounced it as a symptom of national subjugation. The paper said: & other; Horse dicks, play up the tian-qi yu. With four phase Angle, with common bucket card sung river 40 pages, and Ephraim. The trade-offs between, pinned down by the situation, each have meaning, in the theory of stricter punishment?? Wuzhong literati to forget some addicted to the drama, gradually line in the capital. Throughout the &;

& other; E master & throughout; Chen fish gate

horses hanging card entertaining, but there are serious defects. First popular touch and horse tags at the time, there were 120 card number, which is convenient for a pinched the CARDS in your hand, easy to wear. Secondly, card players out to ningbo waterman, fishermen and sea to comfort lonely long journeys, but at sea the wind is big, CARDS are easy to be blown away, or card is easy to be affected with damp be affected with damp.

horse hanging card is not convenient, attract the attention of ningbo Chen blasted into the fish gate, the famous ningbo local players started to transform horse tags.

fish from smart door, Chen in the teenager will follow Mr Yang Qitang learning English. Light twenty-nine years (1849) pull gong to work the Syrian cabinet in the book, and doctrine of street.

due to understand English, fish gate Chen accept the court sent back to ningbo to do five trade related to foreign affairs. During the taiping heavenly kingdom across jiangnan, ningbo has near the sea and is not affected, but as the war spread to the north of ningbo area, when the qing government financial emptiness, Chen fish gate also managed to raise suppress military from all sides.

ningbo no entertainment facilities at that time, raise the pressure of the military and the taiping rebels surrounding city in ningbo harassing messages, also let he fidget, lived in Beijing for this & other; Wide circle of friends, gin virtual free day & throughout; Feeling depressed Chen of the fish gate, the thin of ningbo people began to think of using a new kind of entertainment, can not only entertainment, can also play together with the foreigners’ business.

in 1846, during the period of inhabit, ningbo jiang north shore with hing street, Chen fish door began to reform the horse tags. His first thought, to make a similar dice horse tags, with bone pieces. Replace card with domino, inherit the touch and of the card, cable, cone, a total of one hundred and eight pieces, Yi Gonghua for green hair, white for the whiteboard, poker for red, name & other; Three arrows & throughout; The four and twelve copies. To increase the fun, he added & other; East, south, west and north & throughout; The four winds, the four, a total of 16 pieces, thus formed the popular one hundred and thirty-six piece vice mahjong tiles.

after the refined as hard brand mahjong, Chen fish gate and formulate a set of mahjong and rules, and develop & other; Throughout the head &; And & other Time & throughout; The concept of set & other; In vain & throughout; And & other Throughout the southeast northwest &; For & other; Throughout the &; , & other; Uniformly throughout the &; , & other Mix color & throughout; And & other Throughout the rightness and &; Set & other; Time & throughout; To calculate the size of the mahjong and brand, Chen fish gate also created & other; Bar & throughout; , & other Eat & throughout; And the method of positioning with dice. Through the integration of Chen fish gate of mahjong, its style compared with horse dicks, by numerous to Jane, and as it comes to the popular in ningbo.

the clear barnyard grass class notes & middot; gambling & middot; fork sparrow, remember to wear & other; The sparrow is also one of the leaves. For the bo, yue. & lsquo; Fork sparrow & rsquo; . Every one hundred and thirty-six, started in ningbo, zhejiang province, then spread, through the north and the south. Throughout the &; Du yaquan’s history, said & other; Around the mouth mahjong tiles in first instance, littoral and sea between persons, in early qing dynasty by ningbo Jiang Sha extended to tianjin commercial port in Shanghai. Throughout the &;

according to the literature, Chen was the fish gate and the British consul at ningbo Xia Fuli have business dealings, privately is very close to the MaYou, both sides often playing mahjong, old bund area in ningbo for Xia Fuli prominent, Chen fish gate invention mahjong also become a ningbo high society and business entertainment, & other; Small wager chief use for delight, big bet on injury body & throughout; Ningbo merchants, some due to overindulge, cause waste, even ruin, Chen fish gate this invention entertainment, has also been ningbo people regarded as social danger. Therefore, ningbo folk called Chen fish gate & other; E master & throughout; , ningbo has a common saying, & other; E master, made mahjong & throughout; .