today’s Britain, dickens is everywhere. People will think of him at Christmas “a Christmas carol” in the description of the festival custom; His characters & ndash; & ndash; Scrooge (after “a Christmas carol” characters, specifically to the miser), faigin (” oliver twist “, after specifically to abet the instigator of juvenile delinquency in children), Mr Peak wake (after the peak wake gaiden, specifically to simple generosity), is rooted in the nation’s collective thinking. Milton is perhaps the modern world is slowly and the decoupling of the greatest English writer; Shakespeare is perhaps the world today is closely linked with the greatest writer. In addition, today’s dickens is also more long popularity than in the past decades. In dickens’s 200th birthday, his works are still read by people, strengthen him as & other; The writer & throughout; Status, its reason lies in dickens’ works are still can cause us to him about are those with and without thinking.
this is why people all know the story of oliver, and this is why dickens is worth people to commemorate.
in the near future, the guardian website made. 4 in dickens’ novels on the theme of the city of London travel tour series; Robert & middot; Douglas – phil hirst as dickens and Claire & middot; Ms tomalin of dickens’s life have been published, in memory of the great writer of the Victorian era; The cultural education of the British embassy in Berlin, Germany held a three-day BBS, invited eight British contemporary writer around & other; If today, dickens will be how to write? Throughout the &; The topic of discussion; The British museum in London for more than 40 years by dickens as the theme of the most important exhibition & other; Dickens and London & throughout; To show the creation course of dickens and his most miss city, with the rapid development of the relationship between the capitalism. Despite the economic crisis is still in the shadow, in 2012 the UK or in a pile of realistic problems in the famous writer Charles Dickens (1812.2.7-1870.6.9) 200th anniversary.
in 1812, dickens was born in Portsmouth, England, at the age of 12, the father of chaos in debt in prison, with family in stuck. Dickens was taken to a shoe polish factory when child labor, to work 11 hours a day. In the 19th century British Victorian era, a similar childhood dickens story is not rare, childhood experience for the future become a writer dickens accumulated a lot of material, also gives his sensitive eager concern the underlying life and lashed out at social poor writing Angle. Dickens slip casting too many complex and serious social problem & ndash; & ndash; Social welfare, workhouse, child labor, child rearing and education as well as juvenile crime, etc. He was so keen to speak for the poor, the care of critical realism established the position of dickens in the UK and world literature.
two hundred years after the UK, about the poor, the debate about the social welfare is still one of the most popular topic in this country. Governments are eager to benefit cuts, in response to the economic crisis still critics and worried those benefits come out against nature, the two sides, however, in the history, reality, system, and even ethical debate. The welfare of the poor should be protected? The problem is simple, a society, of course, to safeguard the welfare of all people. But how to guarantee? This problem is complicated. & other; The poor & throughout; Very general, the concept of the British tried to distinguish between different types of the poor history, almost as ancient history and modern society. If serious & other; The poor & throughout; Concept speaking like a book, then the problems, such as the poor, the welfare and security can be much more complicated than Charles Dickens.
in the history of the workhouse system
the UK has a long tradition of poor, in order to alleviate many farmers displaced, severe unemployment phenomenon, issued in 1601 the British queen Elizabeth poor law “, the purpose is to let the poor to stay in a fixed place, to prevent them into a tramp. The “poor law” also mentioned the simple & other; Workhouse & throughout; The concept of, the proposal for & other; Without labor ability throughout the poor &; To build a house. The workhouse of this period is to provide work for the poor and solve livelihood, at that time, the responsibility of the poor is assigned to the UK each parish, set up by the parish workhouse. Therefore, from the beginning of the 17th century, workhouse gradually developed in the UK.
however, to the Napoleonic wars, the growth of population, overhead to tackle the rising, the poor level of using the obvious difference in urban and rural parish, make more and more people are aware of the “poor law” in 1601 the implementation of the effect is not good. Some utilitarian believes that poverty because of the large area only care about the poor and the lack of prevention as a result of poor planning. Some economists argue that advocated in the “poor law” in 1601 caused some family irresponsible. Represented by malthus population have challenged workhouse, some of the ideas that rely on poor relief rather than self-reliance, causes & other; Population increases, and the survival of population food did not increase & throughout; . The tune, today’s British society is stuck in the prophecy of concern.
in 1834, the economist Thomas malthus, utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy & middot; Bentham and other intellectuals as well as the royal commission, under the leading of the whig government reform of the “poor law” in 1601. British issued the new poor law, namely “the poor law amendment. A new law, the poor, no longer unconditionally relief must enter the workhouse labor to obtain appropriate relief, the poor must come through individual labor instead of relying on public relief of poverty. Core intention lies in the fact that the new law by the court forced labor means self-reliance, to encourage the poor to punish & other; Lazy & throughout; The poor eradicating poverty, thus decrease the rate of relief, to reduce spending on poor.
in the 1870 s, the British government to further reform the system. Considering some people really because of loss of working ability caused by poverty, the authorities the poor into the worth and not worth the relief, the former refers to the elderly and disabled, etc all the poor without the ability to work, the latter refers to the persons with ability to work but in a poor state. For not worth relief of the poor shall practise a system of forced labor, for the relief of the poor, as much as possible to improve their living conditions. The function of the workhouse gradually by the relief to discipline, reformed the increasing maturity of the workhouse system.
the purpose of the workhouse is through deterrence and discipline to make own poor, poor officials think poor hospital in general should not be poor than the bottom of the independent workers better, it didn’t help the poor man’s moral perfection and overcome lazy, therefore, workhouse discipline strictly, harsh living conditions, many constraints and punishment. Caused strong dissatisfaction, over time, how can people think as a refuge workhouse, like prison, critics are called another & other; The bastille & throughout; .
in his career, from 1834 to 1836 is the real Sun theTrue (Sun) and the parliamentary mirror reporter (theMirror) when parliament, it was the poor law reform becomes the focus of debate. In the day of the audit of the house of Commons, he feeds, side to his second novel “oliver twist” all kinds of material accumulation. In dickens’s works on the description of the workhouse impressed a lot of people, people consider workhouse & other; The poor of the bastille & throughout; , and he is full of compassion for the orphans in the novel oliver was related in the description of the workhouse life: oliver was sent into workhouse, can only have three meals a day porridge, for more than half a bread roll on Sunday.
call workhouse & other; The poor of the bastille & throughout; Is too much, of course, it is not & other; The palace of the poor & throughout; . Workhouse is important since the British Victorian poor organization, the social security system in the UK and in the process of the formation of the welfare state has an important influence. 2 o century, the British set up the welfare state, social welfare and social security system gradually replaced the workhouse system.
social welfare reform debate
in dickens’s 200th birthday, the critical realist writer urgently to reveal the phenomenon such as poverty, and dark, and injustice still happen in British society.
at the moment, the economic crisis under the influence of stressed the coalition is trying to pass welfare reform bill cuts to social welfare spending is too high, but the reform process of all the difficulties. The government cut the disabled, patients with severe employment and support allowance proposal met with fierce opposition in the parliament. It is & other members think it; Rob the poor rich & throughout; . Will the welfare of the poor families can apply for a cap for 500 pounds a week to discuss the same failures. Critics argue that such welfare cuts will affect at least fifty thousand families, at the same time can lead to millions of children in poverty and homelessness. John & middot; Parker bishop for family welfare measures to limit submitted amendments, he proposed to child welfare part independent from the family welfare, as far as possible to ensure that the interests of the poor children is not affected by the government cuts in welfare.
these natural care is reasonable, but the problems of the poor itself is not so simple. To set the upper limit of family welfare measures, for example, the government aims to cut costs and inspire the poor enthusiasm of self-reliance, and think that limits is one of the essential unfair factors in the social welfare system. British household after-tax income of the median of 26000 pounds, setting maximum family welfare means that the unemployed family can’t have better treatment than work family. British prime minister David Cameron said of family welfare ceiling: & other; This limit is the basis of fair, otherwise, don’t our system can let the people who work just dole won 26000 annual income? Throughout the &; Such a measure, and actually & other; The poor in poor overall should not be better than at the bottom of the independent workers & throughout; The concept of the same.