in November 1861, the queen and prince gong yi ? joint XinYou coup, then power three times, until his death in 1908, ruled China for 47 years. Most people believe that this is due to the empress dowager cixi is good at playing political trickery, upside down, is cruel, means diabolical unique political skill. In fact, these are not important, more fundamental political reasons. HuangTong inherit spent in late qing dynasty, empress dowager cixi special political status, especially the empress dowager cixi properly deal with the Laplace family with qing imperial house’s political relations, is the root cause of her long reign.
HuangTong inheritance crisis of lack of
empress dowager can master ching highest power for decades, the first is based on the qing emperor series inherit the lack of the objective cause.
from nuerhachi destiny sweat to xuantong emperor of the qing dynasty, a total of 12. The amount of the 12 emperor children, is closely associated with the rise and fall of the qing dynasty. Daoguang emperor and before seven, children also the least and emperor jiaqing 14 children; Called & other; Many children weng & throughout; Kangxi emperor even have 55 children; And by the xianfeng emperor, life is only two sons and a woman; Children managment, and xuantong emperor to life. This makes the light before the emperor on the throne, choice is bigger. And the three emperors since xianfeng, Jane or no children, almost lost the option or may be, the chrysanthemum throne lack of crisis.
the qing dynasty last emperor life is short, and further deepened the crisis. Light before the emperor, in addition to fulin is more special, only live to 24 years old, the other is to live to the 50 s and 60 s, even the octogenarian. And word emperor lived only 19 years old, xianfeng emperor, emperor guangxu, though long service life, but also only 30 s.
if the qing emperor life longer, when his son inherited the throne is normally has grown up, it’s at least can guarantee in terms of age after the new king of succession alone to deal with affairs, ensure smooth transition of the throne and imperial power. But if the emperor’s life is too short, and his heir apparent, small age will, not only do not have any basic knowledge accumulation of reserves and political experience, even do not have wrong judgment. In this case, the new succession of the little emperors or rely on the court etiquette, or dependent on close eunuch, by her own mother, or directly in a period of time the separation of the throne and imperial power, this is likely to lead to a very strong or mother consorts dictatorship TaiADaoChi toward the bureau.
light after the emperor the shortness of life, children not flourishing, heralding the qing HuangTong crisis. In the late qing empire Hu Sijing said of emperor guangxu died without heirs of succession: & other; 15-year-old guidelines again absolutely, and without the child, people know its there will be a mess. Throughout the &; It is this meaning. Empress dowager have decades of interventions, and three in the late qing dynasty emperor, especially its pathogenesis age is too small, when he ascended the throne, the emperor is a direct relationship.
special political status and status
empress dowager can master ching highest power for decades, not only because of its how profound political power or means, but depend on its special political status and position.
xianfeng emperor after the death of the qing dynasty is of implementing internal & other; (the queen) running the fuzheng (eight ministers), cover both throughout the &; Power mechanism, the surface empress dowager cixi and lu su shun eight ministers power is close, but in fact new jun mother empress dowager occupy a more advantageous position, in the political struggle with the eight secretary in an impregnable position. Towards some of the ministers also maintain & other No 2 days since ancient times, people have no two masters & throughout; Most political ideas, think only two palace, the queen mother is the true representative of the imperial power.
chess match ? derogatory hit many times in the future, the empress dowager also make good use of the orthodox represent the political advantage of imperial power. XinYou after the coup, yi ? self-reliance, sometimes in the administrative aspects of choose and employ persons, and & other; No business is to the queen mother & hellip; & hellip; By their own & hellip; & hellip; Arbitrary and line & throughout; . Empress dowager had angrily said to him, & other; You and me on the spot, everything I leather for you. Throughout the &; But game ? hasn’t completely put the empress dowager, stubborn and careless against said, & other; Minister is first emperor sixth son, my job, can you leather prince not leather. Throughout the &; But, at the end of march, 1865, queen dowager rely on the special status of up and down, this is threatening the political ethics, suddenly by deceiving the charges on the reserved advantage, will yi ? leather, after she was queen mother of the special political status of the reward for the prince gong jue. It finally make yi ? prince had to put down the prince’s shelves, and complete obedience.
after 2000 years due to the leather damage of yi who lived in ages past, & other; Jun as I outline & throughout; Such as royalism entrenched. Look around at the time of the qing empire, the emperor and indecisive and kisses you like Wilson of xianfeng ?, alcohol Wang Yi e ? ? 1/2 level, not with the empress dowager cixi opposites, queen who has to compete, theory of honour
to properly handle the relations between the two families political
consorts authoritarian and maintain the independence is a pair of imperial power as the contradiction of oil and water. Empress dowager, properly handle the Laplace family with qing imperial house’s political relations, this is her master in qing dynasty supreme power for decades the most fundamental reason. If the empress dowager cixi and the tang dynasty empress wu to do a comparison, will have a very clear on this.
wu zetian first & other; After running in the throne, government size, both countries YuWen & throughout; And then formally proclaimed himself he reigned. Not only stand Wu Shi seven temple, Buddha himself in five generations of ancestors of the emperor, vigorously promote the heavy outlet’s brothers, sons and nephews political and military power in the inside and outside the court, and kill the prince tang emperor li huang sun. This not only cause the family to resist, also caused many tang dynasty etiquette and old minister’s strong dissatisfaction and opposition.
in contrast, empress dowager cixi master for decades by the supremacy of the qing dynasty, the qing imperial house’s family and her family of the Laplace relationship than the processing of wu zetian is much more safe, no one is up and down in the accused empress dowager of the qing imperial house’s family, the fundamental reason is she on two issues to deal with are more properly.
the first, not the clan to show jue. XinYou after the coup, the empress dowager DaDi third Paul cheung was created for the male, his father JingRui HuiZheng, grandfather and great grandfather geelong canonization, as the third Paul. Above knighted, all is the qing dynasty for the grace of the queen’s queen or family practice, rather than & other; Breach system & throughout; The special case. GuiXiang second brother, third Paul was banned in 1888 as the male, because of its female was elected queen of guangxu emperor, is still follow consorts, conferment of the convention, and there is no direct relationship between the empress dowager’s personal motivation. Empress dowager was in fact not to brother to take control the real power of qing dynasty, in addition to relevant and his brother’s lack of talent, and the empress dowager cixi pay special attention to the qing imperial house’s family and the family relations, don’t give others with acrimony ammunition consciousness consciously or mental alertness.
empress dowager died, son of the commandment to prince chun load being inherited the throne of pu yi, at the same time, oracle: & other; The military government later, ruled by prince regent. In case of a major event, must please queen mother (i.e., the empress dowager longyu niece), an imperial decree by elements of the regent face at any time please. Throughout the &; She didn’t arrange the empress dowager longyu directly behind the scenes, but let her take a back seat in the behind the scenes. Empress dowager of the above arrangement, bias, both for personal gain and loss, at the same time, returned to the qing court and the supreme power in the qing imperial house’s consideration.
second, empress dowager cixi selected set of two small emperor & ndash; & ndash; Guangxu years Tian and xuantong emperor, pu yi, are nearly prince of the qing imperial house’s pedigree in recent offspring. Her arbitrary, although will cause dissatisfaction with the prince of the royal family and other courtiers, but no one doubts that empress dowager is cheating on the qing imperial house’s family or a threat. As for the empress dowager little emperor appointed for many times, and the prince gong yi ?, alcohol pro Wang Yi e ? ? 1/2 level of contradictions and struggles, is understood as the qing dynasty’s internal power struggle, even uncle sister-in-law & LDQ within the family Throughout the housework &; Battle.
above all, regardless of the subjective intent of the empress dowager, objectively, she successfully led to a general recognition it is loyal to the qing imperial house royal, this should be relatively smooth control her highest power of qing dynasty nearly half a century of one of the important reasons.
kai-xi wang, born in 1949, hebei xinji, history professor, doctoral supervisor, school of Beijing normal university is mainly engaged in modern Chinese history, especially in the late qing political history research.