late points men’s and women’s green glazed pottery of the han toilet (hanzhong museum collection)
recently, Beijing revision of the new standards, public toilets will Beijing men’s and women’s toilet of a proportion, from 1:1 to 1:2.
in ancient Chinese history of toilet, also attaches great importance to the construction of public toilets. When public toilets to separate the women’s men’s room?
1. The early public toilets built beside the road more
don’t have to be secret, toilet and the canteen, is a place where people want to go to every day. Academics have a view, is the first public toilets, also called officer lavatory. China’s earliest public toilets, are built beside the road & other; Lk toilet & throughout; .
the rites & middot; cheongwan “records: & other; Imperial secretary, zhang six bedroom of the king, for its well Yan, in addition to its Juan, not to the stench. Throughout the &; Mean Zhou Wang cleaning the room for the imperial secretary for health, build a toilet, impure, eliminate odor. The so-called & other; Yan & throughout; Say again, it is toilet, & other; Suppress & throughout; .
the eastern han dynasty scholar zheng xuan & other; Yan & throughout; Qing dynasty scholar Wang Niansun explained by way of toilet, argues & other; Well Yan & throughout; Is the concealed toilet.
the pre-qin’s location and construction standards for public toilets. Mozi & middot; flags said & other; Step from the road for the screen, thirty and won, high zhangs. Standing for the people, through more than twelve feet high. Throughout the &; The so-called & other; Screen & throughout; Is for wall of toilet; & other; 45 & throughout; Another way is the ancients to the toilet.
& other wall circumference; Thirty steps & throughout; , over 40 m; Higher, more than 2.3 meters. This is the military to use the toilet, if toilet is people, the fence is as high as a post, the second, over 2.7 meters. Such a high wall, it is difficult to peep.
2. Han dynasty already flush lavatory
look from the historical data, the toilet in the zhou dynasty has established well leakage, filth is naturally fell in the pool, scholars still adhered to in the modern times, and this in the past dynasties social customs examination & middot; things standing toilet “in its & other; With today’s ocean latrine quite similar & throughout; .
modern archaeology has found a lot of ancient toilet. In henan shangqiu mans DangShan Liang Xiaowang Washington’s tomb, he found a toilet, there is a complete stone implement, can wash with water. This toilet more than 2000 years ago, is considered to be China’s first ever found in flush toilets.
in 2009, the author has toured Liang Xiaowang tomb, see implement directly behind the wall, and hew out a flushing water pipe, rock by the side of the hole armrest, quite humanized design.
later, in the city ling mountains, xuzhou sierra leone, panniers ZhongShanWang grave tomb of chu has been excavated in writing, such as I have to see the & other; The toilet & throughout; , next to the toilet often and form a complete set & other The bathroom & throughout; , showing the ancient science of health concept.
Liang Xiaowang tomb of toilet, belongs to the rich high-grade toilet. And ordinary toilet is usually dig a very deep pit, built walls into the toilet, commonly known as & other Throughout a latrine &; , & other Toilet & throughout; .
“zuo & middot; into male ten years”, said jinhou & other; Will eat, zhang, toilet, trapped died & throughout; , jinhou namely gentle view, before feel belly bulge, toilet, accidentally fell into the cesspit drowned, visible cesspit of deep.
3. Western luxury toilet was mistakenly master bedroom
chapter & middot; liu w “records, the toilet of billionaire Shi Chong home in west, decorate fastidious, super luxury, and & other; Li addition is purple lines, cotton-padded mattress, two male and a sweet bursa & throughout; After, convenient to put on new clothes. Liu w is the etiquette, also have never seen such a toilet, thought into Shi Chong’s bedroom. Liu w not accustomed to, and finally find ordinary toilet is convenient.
general of the eastern Wang Dui Wu Yang on first wife princess (female) of jin jin wudi emperor wudi luxury toilet, make a big joke. This is yi-qing liu, included in the west-wing in southern dynasties: the toilet with used to plug the nose dried dates, Wang Dui thought is eaten by the toilet, all eat up; The male and female toilet soap water to wash your hands, he when tea drink off.
anonymous between Ming dynasty and early qing novel new pit affair ghost into a rich man “description of zhejiang huzhou wu cheng county farmers MuTaiGong built three public toilets, inside and out than fellow villager’s bedroom clean comfortable decorate. And please people painting sense, posted on the toilet wall, & other; Insert a new hole, as the scene once & throughout; .
to go to the toilet, still can get free toilet paper. Many ladies also want to go to the toilet, so MuTaiGong and built a female toilets. He saw a & other; The toilet economic & throughout; And made a fortune by selling pioneer.
novel is not divorced from the facts, as well as Gu Yuanqing the yunlin tian then introduces more high-grade toilet: & other; Standing the toilet, in tall buildings, wooden division, in implementing the goose feather. Who was, the goose feather up away. Once a boy next to him, needs to go to, not smell a noxious gas also. Throughout the &;
4. Han dynasty toilet has both
the ancient toilet, men and women share a lot of time, only speak & other; First & throughout; . But in the modern archaeological objects to infer, at the latest in the han dynasty, the toilet has men and women.
in shaanxi area, grassland, han han dynasty have been excavated in the last follwed period & other; Green glazed pottery toilet & throughout; . The ceramic toilet has a roof and gable opening on one side there are two doors, separate toilet wall, door also has a short wall, distinguish between men and women.
also found in archaeological separated the men’s room and lady’s design. China agricultural museum’s collection, there are pieces of han dynasty ceramic toilet, build a toilet to each side of pigsty, respectively for the men’s room and lady’s room.
but the ancient lady not more than the men’s room. This is the ancient women go out less activity, low degree of social activity. Now Beijing plans to men and women toilet by 1:2 to design, the women’s social role has & other; Roll over & throughout; .
the number of toilets, the ancients considered by mouth proportion. Training of Ming “real age” is this the toilet: & other; Every ma a flag (each flag over three to five teams, each team 11), every second car of the chariots (24 people per car), the open a toilet pit. Throughout the &;
5. Han dynasty appears & other; The toilet administrators & throughout;
in addition to the “rites” account & other; Imperial secretary & throughout; , the earliest known myth has a surname & other; Look at the toilet & throughout; , is the son of emperor gaozu of huainan Wang Liuan.
the taiping records broadly & middot; fairy said huai nun tzu on his way up to heaven after death, met fairy made & other; Irreverent & throughout; , was sent to heaven for three years to the toilet, to become immortal forever. Although this is a myth, but it reflects the fact that ancient toilet with personnel management.
in qing dynasty, a pay toilet, this and now the lady a percentage increase, also be home. “Yanjing miscellanea” documented that & other; Beijing’s public toilet, the toilet must pay & throughout; . & other; Entrants will pay the money & throughout; , and can get two pieces of toilet paper.
to LAN & other; Business & throughout; , toilet also tend to advertising, posted outside the toilet considerably attractive cloth, vertical billboards, letter & other; Clean room & MAO throughout; With the words. The toilet will be placed on novels and other books, reading for the toilet, for & other; Repeat & throughout; .
& other; A money & throughout; , namely the uttermost farthing. Subei, 25 can buy a kilo fish, visible when the toilet not cheap in Beijing. Many people simply don’t go to the toilet, & other; People in power in defecation & throughout; , so that when the city health is bad, even the score to the g8 coalition.